Follow these principles to help keep your roof fall protection program current and compliant.
Disclaimer – The following information is not certified training material, nor endorsed by training or certification bodies. It is based on anecdotal content.
Roof fall protection, or the measures and equipment used to prevent falls from height at a roofing worksite, is a crucial part of any project. Whether you’re an independent contract roofer with your own client base, or a roofing business owner sending employees to jobs, fall protection should form the centerpiece of your safety program.
Even with strict fall prevention laws and inspection programs in place, year after year, construction workers continue to get hurt, and even die, when working at height. Unfortunately, falls from height (including roofs) continue to be a leading cause.
In 2016 alone, 364 construction workers in the U.S. died in falls – that’s almost one per day.
The good news is, many of these accidents can be prevented with proper roof fall safety systems and equipment. In fact, when the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) recently studied a series of fall-related deaths, they determined that using fall protections would have likely been able to prevent nearly all of them!
Read on to find out how you can not only keep your business compliant with all relevant laws and guidelines, but also help make sure you and your workers make it home safe every day.
Federal guidelines require roofing employers to protect workers from roof falls when working at height (this should focus on fall from heights as one can also fall down or trip when working at heights and not suffer greatly), using specific fall protection equipment and/or systems. (In Canada, these rules are set out as part of Canada’s Occupational Health and Safety Regulations in the Canada Labour Code).
These guidelines also mandate that employers must give training on this equipment and certain first aid and rescue techniques to give the whole team the knowledge to protect themselves and their coworkers.
These fall protection systems usually include three basic components:
When working on low-slope roofs, you may also use a combination of:
Anyone working at a height of six feet (1.8 meters) or greater must use at least one of these protections, but they often should be used in combination, depending on the type of work. What do these protections look like?
1. Guardrail systems
Guardrails are installed around the perimeter of the roof at low and steep slope sites. They can either be permanent or temporary, but there are detailed requirements for the height, composition and location of these, so be sure you’re familiar with these before you select your system.
On a steep slope roof, the guardrail must have toe boards.
2. Safety nets
These are webbed or mesh systems made of natural or synthetic fibers (most are made of either nylon or polypropylene rope) and are suspended below a roof site or skylight to catch or stop a falling worker. There are federal regulations around what these must be made of, how many pounds they can withstand, where they should be hung and how often they need to be tested.
3. Personal Fall Arrest (PFA) systems
Personal Fall Arrest systems, or PFAs, are body harnesses roofers wear and attach to a roof anchor by a lanyard. All components must be able to hold a certain weight, fit in a certain way (and not be a belt, for example) and be tested regularly. Be sure your PFA is certified and in good working condition before you begin your work.
4. Warning line systems
This is a rope, wire or chain barrier that prevents workers from entering an unprotected area. These are heavy-duty warning systems capable of withstanding 500 pounds of pressure to deter workers from entering unprotected areas of the jobsite.
They can be used on a low-slope roof to prevent falls, as long as they’re combined with a guardrail, PFA, safety net or safety monitoring system. These are not part of the required protection for steep roof work.
5. Safety monitoring systems
A safety monitoring system is also used for low slope roof fall protection. It’s not a piece of equipment. Rather, it’s a technique you use on your roof site where a person trained to recognize fall hazards (a monitor) watches a single worker and lets them know if he or she is approaching a hazard or working unsafely. This option must be used with a warning line system – never as a single roof fall protection measure. (Unless the roof is narrower than 50 feet.)
Being a monitor requires training to know what to look for and how to respond to an emergency, so be sure your workers – both those working and observing – have up-to-date training credentials.
The OSHA and Canada Labour Codes go into detail about the types of fall protection equipment and measures you must have in place. But it’s always good to keep the basics in mind. Here are some top precautions to consider:
Roofing designs continue to change and evolve as architects and consumers keep up with new styles and changing preferences. For example, green building standards are leading to more solar panels and “green roofs” being installed. Also, rooftop gardens continue to increase in popularity – features we never saw in the past. Then there are the ever-popular rooftop patios, which continue to be a trend, but which are now being seen in new venues – like a corporate workplace.
What does this mean for roofers? The more features we add to roofs, the more traffic we can expect on them – whether that’s builders, maintenance staff, or occupants out to enjoy leisure spaces. More people means a greater risk for falls, which means even closer attention needs to be paid to roof fall protection measures at all phases of construction and use.
Lawmakers are keeping up with these trends too, so as new technologies and trends emerge, officials continue to update safety legislation to stay current. This means you, as a roofer or a roofing employer, must keep a close eye on not just popular new roof features, but resulting new laws that may go along with them.
With this background, and these changes in mind, here are some guiding principles to keep in mind as you continuously improve your roof fall safety program so it’s not just compliant with relevant regulations, but also helps get you and your employees home safe to your families each day.
1) Re-frame your culture
Safety should be a part of everything you do – not something you tack on after you’ve developed your work plan. Think: “safety first, safety always.”
2) Keep up with changes
As a contract roofer, or an employer, you need to know fall protection regulations like the back of your hand. To stay on top of any changes, be sure to visit the OSHA site regularly (in Canada, your provincial site and the Canada Labour Code).
But that’s just step one. To stay ahead of safety changes, you should also get to know the industry.
Expanding your safety knowledge might at first seem a bit dry, but you may find the more you learn about fall protection safety, the more interested you become.
Who knows, maybe you’ll become the knowledgeable go-to person in your area for safety advice and resources!
3) Training, training, training
Making sure you and your employees are properly trained in fall protection, safety equipment and rescue is required by law. So, you should already be signing up both yourself and your staff for regular certified training.
But to really build a safety culture, you should start to consider safety education an investment in your business, not a chore that has to be checked off a project list.
Consider going over and above what’s required by taking specialty courses offered in your area, even if your certification is current. Attend seminars and talks that local vendors or organizations might offer. Or consider becoming an instructor yourself.
If you’re an employer, include training as part of your employee evaluations so you know they will attend. This will also signal to your workers that their safety is as important to you as getting the job done.
Also think about making time to invite trainers or experts to host short seminars or lunch-and-learns on site. If you pick up the bill for lunch, you can probably expect pretty solid attendance.
4) Talk to your workers
As an employer, you may not be on-site all the time, or see the up-close work taking place at secondary sites. To get an idea of how your fall prevention systems are working, be sure to keep lines of communication open with your teams. Ask your workers what they think of the fall protection measures you have in place. They may be legally compliant, but is there a way to make them better, more efficient or more comfortable for your roofers?
For example, is a newly introduced PFA harness bothering them? Maybe you could explore a different style.
Or, are they working faster or slower thanks to different features you’ve introduced to your fall prevention program? Consider if there are different equipment or materials you could use to make their lives easier, while still protecting their safety.
Encourage ongoing, everyday conversation, and keep your door open to questions or concerns to make sure no hazards come up without your knowledge.
Roof fall prevention equipment saves lives. That’s why the law requires you to use it. But going over and above with safety training and education can improve your business by expanding your knowledge, improving your employee relations and giving your customers the confidence that you’re doing everything you can to do the job not just right, but safely.
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